if used with host plants, it means the organism eats and/or lives upon the plant, ie, epiphytes (close association).
if used with habitat, it means the organism lives where the plant is growing.
used as a management tool, not just an ecological (host plant/organism) relationship. Specify type: animals, fish, insect, pathogens, or snails. Also, if the scientific name of the animal, fish, etc. is known, specify the genus and species.
used as a management tool; not to be confused with herbicides in the environment due to run-off or testing for toxicity. You may be specific by naming chemicals (avoid trade names such as Rodeo): fluridone, glyphosate, 2,4-D, etc. Chemical control and efficacy finds articles on the effects of herbicides on target plants and level of control.
used as a management tool; water level manipulations or prescribed burning, etc. Specify kind of control, ie, hand-weeding, fire, shading, drawdown, etc.
specifies the country or state where the research effort took place. Does not necessarily indicate plant distribution. For plant distribution, use keywords from APIRS Keywords or search survey and plant and/or country, and/or phytogeography and occurrence.
used in a very broad sense and, besides natural systems, includes micro- and mesocosm research aimed at reproducing effects of, or on, the natural environment. The category ecology is used to describe research NOT exclusively physiology, reproduction, taxonomy, morphology, etc. Most often, both ecology and ecosystem are used in conjunction.
used with lakes, rivers, or reservoirs, etc., to indicate increased nutrient accumulation, not necessarily pollution, due to either natural aging or human activities.
is descriptive of literature which deals with the lawmaking and regulatory dimensions, such as agencies involved in regulation, permitting, legislation and monitoring. Other keywords might be jurisdiction, delineation, restoration, preservation, value, policy, issues, management. Reports about governmental agency programs are found under this category.
as a category is fairly specific, indicating an organism is directly associated or dependent upon the plant as a food source or a substrate, or in some symbiotic relationship. If the organism's diet is an invasive or aquatic plant, then the category animal or invertebrate can be used in conjunction with the keywords herbivory, food preference, diet, grazing, and the name of the organism, i.e., waterfowl or manatee or bird or fish or snail, etc.
as a category is used with the categories of ecology and ecosystem (and sometimes toxicology) when the purpose is to locate research dealing with the effects of the herbicides on the environment and not aquatic or invasive plant control only. If information is wanted dealing with control and the side effects on the other plants and/or animals, then both chemical control and herbicides can be used as search categories. Keywords which might be employed to narrow the research include (phyto)toxicity, food web, and the organism affected, i.e., fish, and effects, non-target species/plants.
identifies articles which address a combination of control strategies, i.e., biological control and chemical control combined, for greater efficacy in plant management.
is specifically the use of a machine or mechanical equipment for aquatic or invasive plant control. Sub-categories are harvesting, mowing, dredging, bottom barriers, cutting, steam.
research can be very limited, as in histology (tissues) and cytology (cells), to the plant anatomy only. However, the category of morphology also can be used to find works that deal with ecology and ecosystem research such as depth accommodation or elongation response or leaf length, when these keywords are used. Or it can be used in relation to taxonomy. Genetics research can be located by using morphology and cytology as categories, plus the keywords genetics, chromosomes, karyology, etc.
can be very specific when used with plant genus and species or very general when used with ecosystem and lake or wetland, etc. Use specific nutrients as keywords, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, if necessary.
Invasive plants or exotic pest plants are keywords used frequently with plant succession. Search for invasion and natural areas management and exotic pest plants for articles on parks or natural areas experiencing competition by non-native plants.
is used to indicate a human activity (keyword: mining, wastewater, sewage, etc.). Use utilization and pollution control to indicate a method of controlling pollution with plants. This brings up references about using plants for sewage treatment, as well as the keywords wastewater, constructed, created or artificial combined with wetland.
used alone or with the keyword biomass to indicate plant growth.
used for overall, ecosystem-wide production (frequently includes secondary production).
as a search category will locate articles that deal with using satellite imagery or aerial photographs or GIS (geographical information system) or GPS (global positioning system) to survey plant communities or natural areas. If a new technique or equipment is involved, then method is used as a keyword.
may be further refined by using flowering, germination or ontogeny. It can be refined to a "macro" ecosystem level or to a "micro" histology level. At the macro level, reproduction can be associated with plant succession and the following keywords: seed, survival, competition, seed bank, disturbance, tolerance, etc. Reproduction used in conjunction with ontogeny can be used to identify research at the micro level, especially when keywords such as sporogenesis, embryogenesis, etc. are added. Yet another use of reproduction is to locate articles on micropropagation or tissue culture. If the research is describing a new procedure, then the word method can be added in the list of search keywords.
is a search category that specifically identifies an article as NOT containing original research findings. Review means the article is based upon findings by others and, as such, can be very general and broad in nature or can be a scholarly and highly refined work, such as a monograph.
as a search category will locate, for example, phytosociology research which details species composition or communities and associations, often with long, detailed species lists. (If more than 40 species are listed, then it is noted in keywords "more than 40 species" and only a selection of plant names are listed in the plant field.)
is used to locate articles which deal with the naming and classification of plants. Frequently, taxonomy is used with morphology as a category and the keywords “new record” (if a new occurrence or new classification), identification, or illustration (if especially good drawings are in the article). Keywords manual or guide can be used to find taxonomic reference books.
is used to identify research on the effects of toxic substances on the ecosystem or organisms. For example, herbicide and toxicology would be used to locate articles about the toxic effects of herbicides on fish or other animals. Herbicide and toxicity finds articles on the effects of herbicides on plants in experimental situations or on non-target plants. On the other hand, chemical control and efficacy finds articles on the phytotoxic effects of an herbicide.
identify articles which cover the effects of plants on other organisms such as animals, plants or humans. The effects may be lethal or irritant or allelopathic. When used in conjunction with keywords such as phytochemistry and the kind of toxicity, a more refined search is possible.
as a search category will locate research conducted on the use of a particular plant for human needs, such as Eichhornia for biogas or the use of an ecosystem such as wetlands for pollution control or wastewater treatment. If the wetland has been created specifically for pollution control, then artificial or created or constructed or man-made can be used as keywords. These articles most often deal with the efficiencies of BOD (biological oxygen demand) reduction, etc.
Many articles address the use of azolla as a fertilizer, in which case the keywords crop, nitrogen fixation, symbiosis, amendment, green manure, biofertilizer, compost, enrich, organic can be used. Other keywords are commercial uses, medicine, drug.
Utilization of harvested plants for food for animals, can be found using keywords forage or feed or diet or silage. Edible plants are those consumed by humans.
as a category will locate articles which include water quality sampling or parameters as a basic part of the research, descriptive only and not necessarily for pollution. If direct influence of water chemistry is the purpose of the research, then effects plus ph, turbidity, carbon dioxide, oxygen, etc. can be searched as keywords.